Hemodynamic effects of perioperative stressor events during rhinoplasty.

Demirtas Y., AYHAN M. S., Tulmac M., Findikcioglu F., Ozkose Z., Yalcin R., ...More

Plastic and reconstructive surgery, vol.115, no.2, pp.620-6, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


The hemodynamic effects of perioperative stressors, including preoperative patient anxiety, intraoperative local anesthetic/adrenaline infiltrations, and some painful interventions, have not been fully elucidated in plastic surgery procedures. The present study was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of perioperative stressor events in American Society of Anesthesiologists class I patients undergoing rhinoplasty procedures under general anesthesia. The study included 50 healthy patients, 18 to 51 years of age (mean age, 27 +/- 7 years), who underwent a rhinoplasty procedure in the authors' department. All patients were connected to a digital ambulatory Holter recorder for 24 hours starting on the day before the operation and continuing throughout the procedure. All of the patients received 10 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline 15 minutes after intubation. Observations consisted of heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and power spectral heart rate variability analyses, the latter of which is indicative of the sympathovagal balance of the patients. The majority of patients developed a persistent, moderate sinus tachycardia before the induction of anesthesia. After the infiltration of lidocaine/adrenaline, a mild to moderate and short-lasting tachycardia was detected. A similar increase in pulse rate was also noticed during lateral osteotomies. No significant blood pressure changes attributable to perioperative stressors (with the exclusion of general anesthesia induction, intubation, and extubation) were observed. Sympathetic activity was found to be responsible from marked tachycardia before the induction, which was attributable to preoperative anxiety. The authors' study has demonstrated that there are three hemodynamically unstable periods causing tachycardia for rhinoplasty patients that directly concern the plastic surgeon: immediate preoperative anxiety, local anesthetic/adrenaline injection, and lateral osteotomies. The authors conclude that these patients would benefit from routine use of premedications and that a lidocaine/adrenaline combination is a safe adjunct to general anesthesia in young rhinoplasty patients. In addition, a deeper anesthesia during local infiltration and osteotomics would be appropriate.