In this study, a new synthesis method was developed for the production of modified sol-gel alumina (SG-M) for the selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulphur. The catalytic activity of this modified alumina without any active metal incorporation was then compared with the activity of commercial alumina (alumina-com) for H2S selective oxidation. The N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherm showed that the SG-M alumina synthesized in this work has a mesoporous structure with well-defined hysteresis loops. Both alumina materials showed a gamma-Al2O3 crystalline phase with an amorphous structure in their crystal structure. The surface acidity of the alumina materials was determined using pyridine-adsorbed FTIR analyses, and both alumina showed Lewis acid sites on their surfaces. The catalytic activity tests were performed at 250 degrees C using a feed ratio of O-2/H2S:0.5. The complete conversion of H2S over SG-M was achieved during 400 minutes of reaction time. However, the commercial alumina lost its activity at earlier reaction times. Lewis acid sites and surface hydroxyl groups caused the alumina to be active in H2S selective catalytic oxidation, and the formation of Al-S bonds, observed when the H2S conversion fell, caused a decrease in the catalytic activity of the alumina materials. A high sulphur yield (>= 95%) was obtained over SG-M, even though there was no active metal incorporation and even in the presence of excess oxygen. Considering the catalytic activities, the new sol-gel alumina synthesized in this work is superior to commercial alumina. It was concluded that, as a catalyst without any active metal, SG-M is a promising catalyst in H2S selective oxidation to sulphur.