The aim of this study was to investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Doxycycline (Dox) on endometriotic lesions in an experimental rat model. Thirty-seven female Wistar albino rats with surgically induced endometriosis were randomized and divided into four groups. The rats were administered 5 mg/kg/day oral Dox in Group 1 (low-dose Dox group, n=9), 20 mg/kg/day oral Dox in Group 2 (high-dose Dox group, n=10) and 1 mg/kg single dose, subcutaneous leuprolide acetate in Group 3 (leuprolide acetate group, n=9). The rats in Group 4 (control group, n=9) were given no medication. The rats received medication for three weeks and were then sacrificed to evaluate the morphological and histological features of the implants. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 immunoreactivity of the implants was also evaluated. The size of the endometriotic implants decreased in Groups 1-3 but statistically significant differences were not observed among the groups. The mean surface area of the endometriotic implants decreased from 69.3 +/- 30.8 to 52.1 +/- 27.0 mm(2) in Group 1 (P>0.05), from 60.2 +/- 18.9 to 38.6 +/- 28.7 mm(2) in Group 2 (P>0.05) and from 58.1 +/- 33.1 to 26 +/- 9.0 mm(2) in Group 3 (P=0.03). The epithelial MMP-9 immunohistochemical score was significantly higher in Group 1 and lower in Group 3 when compared with the control group (Group 4) (P=0.042 and P=0.014, respectively). When the stromal MMP-9 immunohistochemical and histopathological scores of the endometriotic implants were compared, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Although there was no statistically significant difference, Dox reduced the endometriotic implant area in the rat endometriosis model. Further studies are required to investigate the potential efficacy of Dox in endometriosis due to its widespread use and tolerability.