Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a method used for the treatment of patients with severe aplastic anemia, leukaemia and some other malignancies. As it causes many adverse sequelaes (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mucositis), adequate oral diet is usually unachievable and artificial nutrition support is required. In order to reduce the risk of infections, the protective benefit of "low-microbial / neutropenic diets" is suggested to use in immunosuppressed patients. Traditionally, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been the chosen method for the nutritional support of patients undergoing HSCT. Secondly enteral nutrition (especially with enteral tube feeding - ETF) is an alternative method for nutritional support. It is important that dietary guidance for HSCT patients to minimize the risk of microbial exposure, optimize nutrient consumption and energy intake is very important.