Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of resin cements to zirconia. Material and methods: Sintered zirconia specimens (n = 192) were divided into four different surface treatment groups: control (no treatment); airborne-particle abrasion; glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid (HF) application, and hot etching solution application. Then, each group was divided into four subgroups (n = 12), and three different resin cements were applied to the zirconia surfaces. The shear bond strength value of each specimen was measured after 5000 thermo cycles. The failure types were examined with a stereomicroscope and the effects of the surface treatments were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests (a = 0.05). Results: The surface treatment and resin cement type significantly affected the bond strength results (p < 0.05). For all resin cements, the airborne-particle abrasion treatment increased the shear bond strength values (p < 0.05). The glaze layer & HF application increased shear bond strength values for all groups, except the Single Bond Universal-RelyX Unicem Aplicap group (p < 0.05). The surface roughness values of airborne-particle abraded specimens were similar to comparable values for specimens from the control group and the hot etching solution group (p > 0.05). The glaze layer & HF application group produced the highest surface roughness values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study recommend using the appropriate combination of surface treatment and adhesive/silane coupling agent to achieve durable zirconia-resin bonding.