Empirical antimicrobial therapy is usually started in febrile neutropenic patients without having culture results. The aim of this study was to help determine the policies of empirical antibiotic usage in febrile neutropenic children by detecting the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in this group of patients. In this study 811 blood cultures taken from neutropenic children hospitalized at the Department of Oncology of Gaziantep Children Hospital November 2007 and February 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Blood cultures were routinely collected in aerobic and anaerobic media and incubated using the BACTEC system. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates to antimicrobial agents was performed using the Vitek2(A (R)) system according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 811 isolates analyzed, 128 (56.4%) were gram positive cocci, 43 (18.9%) were gram negative bacilli and fungi accounted for 56 (24.7%). The main isolated Gram-positive bacteria from blood were coagulase-negative staphylococcus (56.7%), followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (14.1%). S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were all susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin. S aureus was still susceptible to few other antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline (82.4%), chloramphenicol (55.6%). Seven E. faecium, 7 E. fecalis and 1 E. hirae was isolated from blood cultures. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 6 out of 15 (40%) Enterococcus spp. isolates. Among gram-negative bacteria E. coli (30.2%) was followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.9%) and Proteus spp. (18.6%). Imipenem (89.2%), meropenem (86.6%), chloramphenicol (88.9%), amicasin (82.4%) and fosfomycin (81.3%) showed highest susceptibility in vitro activity against all Gram-negative isolates. To know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the pathogens frequently isolated from febrile neutropenic children and to consider this profile before starting an empirical antibiotic therapy would help the clinics which have any role in the treatment of these patients to determine the empirical antibiotic usage policies.