Primary bronchial lymphoma is a rare entity that is both clinically and radiographically confused with bronchogenic carcinoma in elderly patients. In such cases of suspected malignancies, surgery is required for diagnosis. We operated on two patients with the diagnosis of suspected malignancy of the lung. No metastases were found in the detailed work up before the operation. One patient underwent right pneumonectomy and the other underwent explorative thoracotomy to obtain tissue specimens. Frozen section studies were performed for both of them. In the first patient the frozen section study demonstrated a malignant epithelial tumor and in the second a less differentiated tumor. Histopathologic diagnoses for both patients were bronchus associated lymphoid tissue, BALT type lymphoma. Although pulmonary lymphomas are rare and localized only in the lungs, lymphomas should be regarded as systemic disorders and must be treated with chemotherapy and/or irradiation. However, they need to be diagnosed properly and surgery can be a tool for a definite diagnosis.