Structure in distance learning: A systematic literature review

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Kandemir B., Çakmak E.

Participatory Educational Research, vol.8, no.4, pp.139-170, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.17275/per.
  • Journal Name: Participatory Educational Research
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.139-170
  • Keywords: Course structure, Curriculum, Distance education, Evaluation, Flexibility-rigidity, Instructions, Technology, Transactional distance


© 2021, Ozgen Korkmaz. All rights reserved.The research aims to determine the elements under the structural component in distance learning environments. The research was conducted as a systematic literature review. The research was conducted on a total of 54 studies. The studies were accessed through the electronic databases accessible at Gazi University. A PRISMA flow chart was used to select the studies. The classification of the studies into categories and codes was done using content analysis, in terms of the structural component. A total of 78 codes were found in 5 categories under which 5409 codings were made. It was found that under the structural component, the Technology category was the most frequently used. This category is followed by flexibility-rigidity, assessment, guidance and curriculum. The most frequently used code in the studies is individual feedback, which falls under the flexibility-rigidity category. As a result of the study, some suggestions were made for designers of distance education media. They should pay maximum attention to the flexibility-rigidity category to support students’ sense of belonging. It is recommended to use different (textual, audio/video) feedback methods in the learning environment. They are expected to pay more attention to the Curriculum category to support learner success. The roles of teachers and learners should be clearly defined. Technology should be planned to support all processes such as interaction, access to content, communication, sharing, collaboration, and evaluation that may be experienced in the learning environment. Formative evaluation should be considered important and more than one method of performance assessment should be used. Since technological platforms are the basic elements of communication, they should be used extensively in learning environments.