The primary purpose of this study was to apply structural equation modeling (SEM) integrated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach to model the safety culture of the petrochemical industry of Japan. Workers from five companies located in the Chugoku region of Japan completed a paper-based survey distributed by email. SEM and ANFIS methods were integrated in order to identify and model the important factors of the safety culture. The results of SEM indicate that employee attitudes toward safety, coworker's support, work pressure, and plant safety management systems were significant factors influencing violation behavior, personnel safety motivation, and personnel error behavior. Furthermore, the application of the ANFIS modeling approach showed that employees' attitude was the most critical predictor of violation behavior and personnel error behavior, while coworkers support was the most critical predictor in modeling personnel safety motivation.