Eosinophilic peritonitis (EP) constitutes a significant number of culture-negative peritonitis cases that can affect 16-60% of the patients who are treated with maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). Although it is mainly considered to be the hypersensitivity response of the peritoneum to foreign substances, it can also develop following culture-positive peritonitis attacks. Besides the presence of more than 100 white blood cells (WBC)/ml, the diagnosis is made with the high number of eosinophils in the dialysate fluid (>10%), usually accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. In this study, a 12-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed as EP as early as in the first week of PD catheter placement and treated with systemic antihistamines was reported. Additionally, clinical aspects and treatment modalities of EP are presented with a detailed literature review. Although EP is usually a self-limiting clinical manifestation with a benign outcome, it can be overlooked due to the lack of a routine reporting of the count and percentage of peritoneal eosinophils in most centers. For this reason, a detailed examination in culture-negative peritonitis cases for EP in order to avoid unnecessary antibiotic use for these patients should be the strategy.