Can iron, zinc, copper and selenium status be a prognostic determinant in COVID-19 patients?


ENGİN A. B., ENGİN E. D., ENGİN A.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY, vol.95, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 95
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.etap.2022.103937
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Oxidative stress, DEPENDENT RNA-POLYMERASE, TNF-ALPHA PRODUCTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS, STRUCTURAL BASIS, SARS-COV, ANTIVIRAL IMMUNITY, CONVERTING ENZYME, CYTOKINE STORM, METAL-IONS, SARS-COV-2
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

In severe COVID-19, the levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), do not only regulate host immune responses, but modify the viral genome, as well. While low serum Fe concentration is an independent risk factor for the increased death rate, Zn controls oxidative stress, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and viral replication. Therefore, Zn deficiency associates with a worse prognosis. Although Cu exposure inactivates the viral genome and exhibits spike protein dispersal, increase in Cu/Zn due to high serum Cu levels, are correlated with enhanced risk of infections. Se levels are significantly higher in surviving COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, both Zn and Se suppress the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Since the balance between the deficiency and oversupply of these metals due to a reciprocal relationship, has decisive effect on the prognosis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, monitoring their concentrations may facilitate improved outcomes for patients suffering from COVID-19.