In this work, we present a new complete method using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and chemometrics for the qualitative and quantitative detection of pesticides by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity. The Raman SERS is not only used for measuring the ACHE activity, but also for the direct detection of pesticides individually and for their identification. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as dynamic SERS substrates for sensitive monitoring of ACHE activity in the presence of very low levels of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, chemical warfare agents that are known to be ACHE inhibitors. The lowest detectable level for paraoxon was determined at 4.0 x 10(-14)M and 1.9 x 10(-9)M for carbaryl. The use of the enzyme allowed limits of detection for both pesticides that were much lower than the limits obtained by direct SERS analysis of the pesticides. The system shows a linear relationship between the intensity band at 639 cm(-1) and pesticide concentration. These results suggest that this biosensor could be used in the future for the non-selective detection of all ACHE inhibitors at very low concentrations with possible identification of the inhibitor. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.