© 2021 Bentham Science Publishers.Background: The fruits with the seeds of Dracunculus vulgaris Schott. (Araceae) are used against inflammatory diseases in Turkey. Objective: The present study was designed to justify this folkloric usage of the plant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of D. vulgaris. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared from the fruits, suc-cessively. Carrageenan-, serotonin-, and prostaglandin E2-induced hind paw edema; acetic acid-in-duced capillary permeability and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate–induced mouse ear edema models were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts. The analgesic activity was observed by using p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test. Results: The petroleum ether extract displayed the highest activities in all of the used test models compared with the control group. Therefore, the constituents of this extract were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Linoleic acid was found to be the major constituent of the petroleum ether extract of D. Vulgaris. Conclusion: This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant.