Comparison Of Social Studies Teachers' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy Towards Inclusive Education and Their Views On Classroom Practices

Thesis Type: Doctorate

Institution Of The Thesis: Gazi University, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Sosyal Bilgiler Eğitimi Bilim Dalı , Turkey

Approval Date: 2019

Thesis Language: Turkish


Supervisor: Bahadır Kılcan


Inclusive education is an understanding that aims to create a school climate that is free from marginalizing and exclusionary attitudes and behaviors that unites society around the idea of quality education for all, adopting a fair education environment for all students, not only students who need special education. As a matter of fact, UNESCO defines inclusive education “as sure the process of responding to the different needs of learners by increasing their participation in education, culture and society and reducing discrimination within the education system”. In this direction, many studies have taken into consideration the process of inclusion of disadvantaged students (girls, children with disabilities, children in need of special education, working children, children of poor families, children living in the war zone, displaced children (refugee-asylum seekers)). However, there are not enough studies in the literature regarding the roles of teachers in the inclusion of these students in education. With this thesis, it has been tried to contribute to the literature by developing scales that can reveal the current status (attitude, self-efficacy and classroom practice) of teachers who have an important role in achieving the aim of inclusive education. From that point, this research was conducted for two general purposes. Firstly, it was conducted in order to demonstrate the attitudes and self-efficacy of social studies teachers towards inclusive education by comparing them with in-class practices. Secondly, it was developed to develop data collection tools (scales) that could demonstrate the attitudes, self-efficacy and classroom practices of teachers in 14 branches (Preschool Teaching, Classroom Teaching, English Language Teaching, Religious Culture and Ethics Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Turkish Teaching, Primary Mathematics Teaching, Social Studies Teaching, Information Technologies and Software, Science and Technology Teaching, Physical Education Teaching, Visual Arts Teaching, Technology and Design, Music Teaching) towards inclusive education. The research has six main stages. In the first step, a pool of substances was established and expert opinions were consulted. In the second part, the opinions of the experts were analyzed with the Lawshe technique. In the third phase, pilot application was performed with the data obtained. In the fourth stage, as a result of the pilot application, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes were performed and the scale was finalized. In the fifth stage, the main application was made with 3 scales. In the sixth stage, the data obtained as a result of the main application was analyzed and the research was concluded. The study was designed as a quantitative research and the research pattern of the study was corelational sceening. The correlational research model and the causal comparison design were used in the study. The pilot stage of the study group consists of 405 teachers working in 14 official branches of primary schools and secondary schools of the Ministry of National Education in the central districts of Ankara and Aksaray provinces in the spring term of 2017-2018 academic year. The main implementation phase was carried out with 290 social studies teachers working in official secondary schools of the Ministry of National Education in the central districts of Ankara and Aksaray provinces in the fall semester of 2018-2019 academic year. When the results of the study were examined in general, it was found that the attitudes of social studies teachers towards inclusive education, self-efficacy perceptions and in-class practice levels were positive with a different expression. Based on the results of the research, learning areas, acquisitions, values, and skills related to inclusive education in the curriculum of social studies course are considered insufficient. In this direction, inclusive education can be included more in the curriculum of MEB courses. YÖK may add compulsory and elective courses directly related to inclusive education in the undergraduate program of social studies teachers. Field experts working in inclusive education may hold awareness raising and awareness meetings on inclusive education for school stakeholders under the coordination of MEB. In addition, similar studies of social studies teachers' attitudes and self-efficiencies related to inclusive education compared with classroom practices can be done by taking samples from different branch teachers and present situations related to that branch can be revealed.

Keywords: Inclusive education, Social studies, Attitude, Self-efficacy, In-class practice