Optimization of square wave voltammetry parameters by response surface methodology for the determination of Sunset yellow using an electrochemical sensor based on Purpald®


Food Chemistry, vol.404, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 404
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.134412
  • Journal Name: Food Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Electro-polymerization, Modification, Response surface methodology, Sunset yellow, Voltammetric determination
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


A modified electrode (Purpald®/GC) was prepared by electrochemical deposition of 4-Amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (Purpald®) on the glassy carbon electrode surface to determine sunset yellow (SY). The sensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer attached, and electrochemical techniques. Optimum experimental conditions were determined for the determination of SY. To obtain better analytical performance on the Purpald®/GC sensor, the response surface methodology experimental design was used. The square wave voltammetry technique's parameters were optimized to obtain the highest anodic peak current of SY. The working range was obtained as three linear concentration ranges were 4.97 nM-1.18 µM, 1.18 µM-15.16 µM, and 15.16 µM-0.153 mM. The LOD value was found as 1.15 nM with the optimum parameters combination. Using the proposed sensor, SY concentration was determined with satisfactory results in instant powder drink and orange-flavored carbonated drink samples.