We examined the understanding and alternative conception that 9th grade Turkish high school students have about greenhouse effect. Likewise we searched the efficiency of environmental education in which argumentation approach was applied for three weeks. For this purpose, we prepared an Environmental Scale (ES) which consisted of 27 items about these subjects with Likert type. It was applied to different sample groups the first of which consisted of 504 and the second of which consisted of 704 students at an interval of three years to make a comparison of students ideas. Regarding to the findings of the first application, we taught these concepts to 64 students by applying an argumentation based instruction. When the tests results applied at an interval of three years were examined whether students had similar ideas about some topics, some deviations of students knowledge and alternative conceptions were seen. One of the reasons about the differences between two applications can be printed and visual media. Another reason may be the following perception: 'a bad thing is the reason of all badness'. Also it was seen that environmental education was efficient in eliminating students' alternative conceptions or in developing understanding suitable with scientific facts.