Energy and exergy analysis of the temperature and relative humidity controlled infrared convective walnut drying

Dolgun G. K. , AKTAŞ M., Emlek B. O. , Erinc H., Dolgun E. C.

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfpp.17141
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, energy and exergy analyses of the closed-cycle infrared (IR) convective walnut drying were performed. The effects of the combined heat transfer, product-source distance, and temperature-relative humidity (RH) control on the food quality of walnuts and performance were investigated. Experiments were conducted with and without an IR lamp. The temperature and RH of the drying air were set at 40 degrees C and 20%, respectively. The distance between the product and the IR source was changed to 20 cm and 30 cm. The coefficient of performance values of the whole system changed between 1.56 and 2.34. Exergy efficiencies varied between 60.81% and 88.19% without IR and 72.73%-78.54% with IR. Energy and time savings increased by 14.7% and 26.1%, respectively, with using IR at a 20 cm distance compared with the convective system. The fatty acid composition of walnut samples and chemical properties of walnut samples such as total phenolic content, oil, ash, color, antioxidant activity, peroxide values, free fatty acid, conjugated trienes, conjugated dienes, saponification value, and iodine number parameters were analyzed. Food analysis results of all dried walnuts were in the acceptable range. As a result, energy and time savings were achieved with the desired food quality. Novelty impact statement This application makes it possible to achieve the desired conditions with less energy. In this study, the effects of heat transfer mechanisms, the effect of using two mechanisms together, and the effects of the variables within each mechanism on the drying of walnuts were investigated. It has been observed that the addition of an infrared heat source with the right and suitable application shortens the drying time as well as saves energy. As a result of the food quality analysis, it was determined that all products dried without deteriorating the food quality. The closed-cycle intermittent infrared convective drying system is recommended for industrial use.